第八篇    連接詞 (Conjunction)

第五章   從屬連接詞的分類  

 F. since: 意思是自從...時起到現在用在以下兩種結構裡

a.

S. + V. (現在完成式或完成進行式)... since + S. + V. (肯定的過去式)...如:

(1)

Where have you been since I (last) saw you? 
(自我上次看到你以來你到哪裡去了?)

(提示)

since 子句裡有無 last 都有上次、最後(一次)的含義。如果忽略這一點必將造成嚴重的誤解如下例:

(2)

He hasn't written to me since I lived in Taipei.

    根據上面"提示"所言since I lived in Taipei 即等於 since I last lived in Taipei亦即等於 since I left Taipei因此全句的含義是:

自我 住在 (×) 北以來他未曾給我寫過信 
離開 (O)

    這句話等於說 He last wrote to me when I lived in Taipei. (他最後一次寫信給我是我住在台北的時候)

b.

It 

has been (美)

+ 若干時間 + since + S. + V. (肯定的過去式或現在完成式)... 如:

is (英)
(1)

It has been (or is) two years since I saw (or have seen) you.
(自從我上次見你到現在已經兩年了
)

    since 子句裡用 saw 或 have seen 的差異請閱第二冊 p.588-14

(2)

It has been (or is) two years since I smoked.

    根據上面提示所言since I smoked 即等於 since I last smoked亦即等於 since I quitted (or stopped) smoking 因此全句的含義是:

自從我 吸煙 (×) 到現在已經兩年了
戒煙 (O)
(3)

How long has it been (or is it) since you were in Taipei ?

    since you were in Taipei 的含義是自從你最後在台北到現在亦即自從你離開北到現在相當於 since you (last) left (or moved out of) Taipei因此全句的含義是:

(×) 北有多久了?
離開 (O)

()

(1)

若純指過去動詞的時態可能有變第二冊 pp.557-3第4例671E

(2)

結構 a 的 since 子句裡可以用現在完成式的 have been第二冊 p.588-14