第三篇   代名詞 (Pronoun)

第三章  不定代名詞  

15.

every each 的異同

A.

在許多場合兩者都可以通用  如:

(1)

You look more beautiful each (or every) time I see you

( 我每次看到你,你都顯得更漂亮)

(2)

Every ( or Each )child received a large apple.  

( 每一個小孩都得到一個大蘋果)

B.

若要強調固定範圍內的“全體一致,  沒有一個例外 every (沒有強調此種意圖時小數目中常用 each );若要強調“ 個別差異 ”( 即各有各的做法、想法等) each。  如:

(1)

a.

We want every child to succeed.  

( 我們希望每一個小孩個個都成功)

b.

Each child will find his own personal road to success.

( 每一個小孩都會找到各自的成功之路)

(2)

a.

Every violinist practices for several hours.

( 每一位小提琴手個個每天都練習好幾個小時)

b.

Each violinist has his own way of playing the Beethoven concerto.

( 每一位小提琴手演奏貝多芬協奏曲都各有各的方式)

(3)

a.

Every player was on top form.

( 每一位球員個個都是在巔峰狀態)

b.

The president shook hands with each (or every ) player in turn after the game.

( 比賽結束後總統依次和每一位球員握手)

C.

every 可以和 almostnearlysingle, practically = almost )without exception 結合以強調“ ( 幾乎 ) 全體一致 ( 沒有例外 ) ”的含義each 則不可 如:

(1)

Nearly every child likes candy.

( 幾乎每一個小孩都喜歡吃糖果)

(2)

I told every single student what I thought of him.

( 我告訴了每一位學生我對他的想法)

D.

every 不可指兩者中的每一個永遠指三者或更多; each 則可指兩者 (亦可指三者或更多參閱上述A與B) 因此下面各例中的 each 不可改用 every 如:

(1)

Each one of my parents has a car.

( 我的父母親都各有一輛轎車)

(2)

Each sex has its own physical and psychological characteristics.

( 兩性都各有其生理上與心理上的特徵)

(3)

There were roses on each side of the door.

( 門口的每一邊都有玫瑰)

E.

不定數量的、泛指的每一個只用 every 如:

(1)

Every company has its own vacation policy.

( 每個公司都有自己的休假政策)

(2)

I have every reason to believe that you are a liar.

( 我有充份的理由相信你是個騙子)

F.

every 只是形容詞不能單獨做主詞或受詞後面也不可緊接 of 片語以下各例中的 each 都不可改成 every

(1)

Each had a try.

( 每個人都試了一試)

(2)

Although the children in this group seem very much alike, the needs of each are different.

( 儘管這組中的孩子們看起來很相像每個孩子的需求卻是不同的)

(3)

Each of us knows how serious the situation is.

( 我們每個人都知道事態是多麽嚴重)